(1) The debt originally issued by Harcourt General, Inc. is not guaranteed by RELX PLC and RELX NV.

(2) Includes loan notes originally issued by Elsevier Finance SA, and jointly and severally guaranteed by RELX PLC and RELX NV.

(3) Includes debt issued in the name of Harcourt General, Inc. that was merged into RELX Inc. (formerly called Reed Elsevier Inc.) on 30 November 2002. As such, all Harcourt General, Inc. debt is an obligation of RELX Inc.; this debt was not part of the sale of the Harcourt Education businesses. The debt originally issued by Harcourt General, Inc. is not guaranteed by RELX PLC and RELX NV.

(4) During 2015 the following company names were changed: Reed Elsevier PLC to RELX PLC; Reed Elsevier NV to RELX NV; Reed Elsevier (Investments) plc to RELX (Investments) plc; Reed Elsevier Inc. to RELX Inc.; Reed Elsevier Capital Inc. to RELX Capital Inc.; and Reed Elsevier Properties SA to RELX Intellectual Properties SA.